Nuclear hazards are hazards involving the accidental or intentional release of potentially harmful radioactive materials, for instance from nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear weapons.
Biological hazards are biological substances that threaten the health of humans and other living beings. They include infectious disease outbreaks, epidemics, animal plagues and infestations. Contamination can occur through natural exposure to the agent or an accidental release of microorganisms (from a research facility, or by deliberate acts for example).
Chemical hazards are the unexpected release of a substance that is potentially harmful to humans, animals or the environment. They can happen due to technological accidents, the impact of natural hazards, conflict, and terrorism.
A review found that women are disproportionally impacted by exposure to chemicals and wastes and have less access to participation in decision making. For example, women are more likely to store environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate in fat tissue, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Women may also have different susceptibility to hazardous chemicals in connection with their reproductive cycles and at different life stages such as pregnancy, lactation, and menopause, when their bodies undergo physiological changes that may affect their vulnerability to health damage from toxic chemicals.